Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are monospecific antibodies that are the same because they are made...
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are monospecific antibodies that are the same because they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope.
Given almost any substance, it is possible to produce monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to that substance; they can then serve to detect or purify that substance. This has become an important tool in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine.
When used as medications, the non-proprietary drug name ends in -mab.
There are four types of monoclonal antibody, as follows:
Murine - (suffix - omab) Initially, murine antibodies were obtained by hybridoma technology, for which Kohler and Milstein received a Nobel prize. However the dissimilarity between murine and human immune systems led to the clinical failure of these antibodies, except in some specific circumstances. Major problems associated with murine antibodies included reduced stimulation of cytotoxicity and the formation complexes after repeated administration, which resulted in mild allergic reactions and sometimes anaphylactic shock.
Chimeric - (suffix -ximab) Chimeric antibodies are composed of murine variable regions fused onto human constant regions. Human gene sequences, taken from the kappa light chain and the IgG1 heavy chain, results in antibodies that are approximately 65% human. This reduces immunogenicity, and thus increases serum half-life
Humanized - (suffix - zumab) Humanised antibodies are produced by grafting murine hypervariable amino acid domains into human antibodies. This results in a molecule of approximately 95% human origin. However it has been shown in several studies that humanised antibodies bind antigen much more weakly than the parent murine monoclonal antibody, with reported decreases in affinity of up to several hundredfold. Increases in antibody-antigen binding strength have been achieved by introducing mutations into the complementarity determining regions (CDR), using techniques such as chain-shuffling, randomization of complementarity determining regions and generation of antibody libraries with mutations within the variable regions by error-prone PCR, E. coli mutator strains, and site-specific mutagenesis.
Human - (suffix - umab) Human monoclonal antibodies are produced using transgenic mice or phage display libraries. Human monoclonal antibodies are produced by transferring human immunoglobulin genes into the murine genome, after which the transgenic mouse is vaccinated against the desired antigen, leading to the production of monoclonal antibodies., allowing the transformation of murine antibodies in vitro into fully human antibodies.
View our report title: Monoclonal Antibodies Partnering Terms and Agreements
View our report title: Antibody Partnering Terms & Agreements